This is one of the nine intelligences recognized in the Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory, which was first introduced by Harvard University Professor Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983. Read my article Multiple Intelligence Theory for more on this.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence is the inner quality of individual that helps focus on the skills of reasoning and analytical thinking. This is the basic quality of being a good calculator and problem solver. Every individual has unique set of qualities with a certain combination of all nine intelligences. The people with the strong presence of this intelligence are sensitive to numbers, logical consequences and numerical patterns. They are keen users of numerical calculations. Persons with strong Logical-Mathematical Intelligence are good at using their own reasonings and long chain of logical consequences. They are eventually good at interpreting the quantitative data and enumerating qualitative information.
People with strong Logical-Mathematical Intelligence are very good in:
Counting numbers or patterns
Developing Ideas in absence of physical objects
Understanding symbolic versions of expressions
Playing with puzzles or logical games
Sorting things in Order
Solving mathematical problems
Studying things with numbers and patterns
Professionally, these people are usually Engineer, Accountant, Financial Analyst, Scientist, Physicist, Gambler, Banker, Stock Market Broker, Chess Player etc.
Stephen Hawking, an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.
Anatoly Karpov, a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion from 1975 to 1985 and also from 1993 to 1999.
Please follow my other articles on specific intelligence for extensive details on Verbal Linguistic Intelligence, Visual Spatial Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, Naturalist Intelligence, and Existentialist Intelligence.